Current Affairs : Environment
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  • Attempts to incorporate a key scientific study into global climate talks fails in Poland have failed.
  • The IPCC report on the impacts of a temperature rise of 1.5C, had a significant impact when it was launched last October.
  • Scientists and many delegates in Poland were shocked as the US, Saudi Arabia, Russia and Kuwait objected to this meeting "welcoming" the report.
  • It was the 2015 climate conference that had commissioned the landmark study.
  • The report said that the world is now completely off track, heading more towards 3C this century rather than 1.5C.
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  • With the direst warnings yet of impending environmental disaster still ringing in their ears, representatives from nearly 200 nations gathered 2 Dec. in Poland to firm up their plan to prevent catastrophic climate change.
  • The UN climate summit comes at a crucial juncture in mankind’s response to planetary warming. The smaller, poorer nations that will bare its devastating brunt are pushing for richer states to make good on the promises they made in the 2015 Paris agreement.
  • In Paris three years ago, countries committed to limit global temperature rises to well below two degrees Celsius (3.6 degrees Fahrenheit), and to the safer cap of 1.5C if at all possible.
  • But with only a single degree Celsius of warming so far, the world has already seen a crescendo of deadly wildfires, heatwaves and hurricanes made more destructive by rising seas.
  • In a rare intervention, presidents of previous UN climate summits issued a joint statement as the talks got underway in the Polish mining city of Katowice, calling on states to take “decisive action to tackle these urgent threats”.
  • “The impacts of climate change are increasingly hard to ignore,” said the statement, a copy of which was obtained by AFP. “We require deep transformations of our economies and societies.”
  • 20 leaders on 1 Dec. agreed a final communique after their summit in Buenos Aires, declaring that the Paris Agreement was “irreversible”.
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  • Deforestation in Brazil has reached such epic proportions that an area equivalent to one million football pitches was lost in just one year, Greenpeace said.
  • Between August 2017 and July 2018, deforestation increased by almost 14%, with an area of 7, 900 sq km of forest cleared, according to the governmental institution of special investigations.
  • “It’s more or less one million football fields of deforestation in just one year,” said Marcio Astrini, the public policies coordinator for Greenpeace Brazil. “Every year we have this news that forest is being criminally deforested.”
  • Could get worse -Mr. Astrini said things could get even worse if President-elect Jair Bolsonaro carries out his threats to loosen environmental protection rules.
  • The Amazon rainforest represents more than half of Earth’s remaining rainforest and covers an area of 5.5 million sq km, about 60% of which is in Brazil.
  • But it is under threat from illegal logging as well as farming, in particular from soybean plantations and pasture land for cattle.
  • Between 2004 and 2012, deforestation in Brazil was slowed through controls imposed at a government level as well as by the private sector.
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  • The increasing number of extreme events is causing die-back of Arctic plants or 'browning' across Arctic regions, a study has found.
  • Scientists from the University of Sheffield in the UK studying the Arctic which is warming twice as fast as the global average found that plant dieback following these events could significantly reduce the ability of Arctic ecosystems to help combat climate change.
  • Previously, scientists had found that increasing summer warmth in the Arctic was encouraging vegetation to grow, turning areas green.
  • "Despite the scale of Arctic browning, until now we knew very little about its impacts on ecosystem carbon balance; the balance between carbon uptake by vegetation and its release from vegetation and soils," said Rachael Treharne, a PhD student at the University of Sheffield.
  • "This information is critical to understanding the role of Arctic ecosystems in regulating global climate, both now and in the future," Treharne said.
  • The study, published in the journal Global Change Biology, assessed the impacts of Arctic browning driven by extreme climatic events.
  • Researchers looking at heathland in the Lofoten archipelago of Arctic Norway found the area had been affected by two extreme climatic events.
  • One of the events caused death of the dominant evergreen vegetation, and the second caused an extensive 'stress response', visible as high levels of protective anthocyanin (red) pigments in shoots and leaves.
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  • The islands, comprising only 0.25% of country’s geographical area, has 11,009 species, according to a publication by the Zoological Survey of India
  • The Narcondam hornbill, its habitat restricted to a lone island; the Nicobar megapode, a bird that builds nests on the ground; the Nicobar treeshrew, a small mole-like mammal; the Long-tailed Nicobar macaque, and the Andaman day gecko, are among the 1,067 endemic faunal species found only on the Andaman and Nicobar Islands and nowhere else.
  • A recent publication by the Zoological Survey of India (ZSI) titled Faunal Diversity of Biogeographic Zones: Islands of India has for the first time come up with a database of all faunal species found on the island, putting the number at 11,009.
  • The documentation proves that the islands, comprising only 0.25% of India’s geographical area, are home to more than 10% of the country’s fauna species.
  • Note of caution - The publication, however, also cautions that tourism, illegal construction and mining are posing a threat to the islands’ biodiversity, which is already vulnerable to volatile climatic factors.
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  • Women working near busy roads are at high risk of developing breast cancer, due to traffic-related air pollution, researchers have warned.
  • The team, from University of Stirling in Scotland, analysed the case of a woman who developed breast cancer after spending 20 years working as a border guard at the busiest commercial border crossing in North America.
  • The woman was one of, at least, five other border guards who developed breast cancer within 30 months of each other and, at another nearby crossing, a cluster of seven other cases was noted.
  • According to Michael Gilbertson, the findings “infer a causal relationship” between breast cancer and very high exposures to traffic-related air pollution containing mammary carcinogens
  • “This new research indicates the role of traffic-related air pollution in contributing to the increasing incidence of breast cancer in the general population,” Gilbertson said.
  • The group of women all developed a cancer believed to have been caused by exhaust fumes in what researchers have branded a ‘new occupational disease’.
  • There is a one in 10,000 chance the cases were a coincidence, the study published in the journal New Solutions said, because the cancers were all so similar and close together.
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  • Indonesia, ranked second behind China in the 2015 study of mismanaged plastic waste
  • A sperm whale found dead in a national park in Indonesia had nearly six kilogrammes of plastic waste, including 115 cups, in its stomach, park officials said on November 20.
  • The 9.5-metre (31.17 ft) whale was found in waters near Kapota Island, part of the Wakatobi National Park, south east of Sulawesi, the park said in a statement.
  • The park is famous among divers for its large area of reefs and diverse marine life including rays and whales.
  • The cause of death was not known, but park officials found plastic bottles, bags, sandals, and a sack with more than 1,000 pieces of string in the whale's stomach.
  • In June, the death of a pilot whale in Thailand with 80 pieces of plastic rubbish in its stomach garnered headlines locally, but drew more attention outside the country.
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  • “This one is the first confirmed photographic record for India.”
  • In a rare sighting that has been photographed, birder K. Vivek Nayak from Mangaluru captured through his lens the ‘Ortolan bunting’, which breeds from Mongolia to Europe and migrates to Africa via the Middle East.
  • Mr. Nayak, from Coastal Karnataka Birdwatchers’ Network, told The Hindu that he spotted the bird at Kenjar, on the outskirts of the city, on Sunday (November 18) at about 4.15 p.m.
  • “The bird was drinking water in a marshy field,” he said. After Mr. Nayak shared the spotting of the bird and its photograph on social media, some birders commented that it is the first photographic record of an Ortolan bunting in India.
  • Praveen J. from Bird Count India, a consortium of several groups of birders across India, told The Hindu: “It is the definitive photograph from India.”
  • Mr. Praveen said that the bird appears to be ‘disoriented’, and it is a young one. While migrating, if an Ortolan bunting loses its way, it may land anywhere, he said.
  • The International Union for Conservation of Nature’s (IUCN) red list of threatened species has placed Ortolan bunting in the “Least Concern” category
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  • With conditions improving, better hatching rate expected among the endangered species
  • With the nesting season in full swing, the Forest Department and researchers from the Government Arts College hereare monitoring the nesting sites of the critically endangered Whiterumped vulture in the Sigur plateau.
  • Partly supported by the Mudumalai Tiger Reserve and the Tamil Nadu Forest Department, the Survey and Research for Vulture Conservation Project aims at identifying active nesting sites in the four White-rumped vulture colonies in the buffer zone of the tiger reserve.
  • Nesting sites - B. Ramakrishnan, co-ordinator for the project and Assistant Professor at the Department of Zoology and Wildlife Biology at the college, said the nesting sites at two of the four colonies had been identified, and 24 active nests had been found to be thriving.
  • Mr. Ramakrishnan said that there were around 150 White-rumped vultures in the Sigur plateau, and that compared to the previous years, there was hope among researchers and forest department officials that there could be more successful hatchings of the species this year, owing to the availability of water in the region and other beneficial factors.
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  • The amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere hit a new record last year with emissions showing no sign of slowing down, the UN World Meteorological Organization said on 22 Nov.
  • The annual Greenhouse Gas Bulletin dashed hopes for a slowdown in emissions of CO2 - the byproduct of burning fossil fuels that scientists say is the main cause of the greenhouse effect causing global warming.
  • “The science is clear. Without rapid cuts in CO2 and other greenhouse gases, climate change will have increasingly destructive and irreversible impacts on life on Earth.
  • The window of opportunity for action is almost closed,” WMO Secretary-General Petteri Taalas said in a statement.
  • The report found CO2 levels of 405.5 parts per million in 2017, up from 403.3 ppm in 2016 The rate of increase is in line with the average growth rate over the last decade, which was the fastest rate for 55 million years, the WMO said.
  • Carbon dioxide levels have risen 46 percent since the pre-industrial era, around 1750.
  • “The most alarming thing is that half of the increase from pre-industrial times comes within the last 30 years,” said Oksana Tarasova, head of WMO’s atmospheric environment research
  • The rise was expected to be much lower in 2017, because the previous year saw “El Nino” weather conditions, which are normally followed by a big slowdown in the growth of CO2 concentrations.
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  • India's first specialized hospital for elephants was opened by Agra Divisional Commissioner Anil Kumar at Farah block's Churmura village, Mathura.
  • The facility, armed with facilities such as wireless digital X-Ray, thermal imaging, ultrasonography, tranquilization devices and quarantine facilities, has not only come as a respite to the elephants but is also attracting local and foreign tourists
  • For geriatric elephants-Located close to the elephant conservation and care centre, the hospital is designed to treat injured, sick or geriatric elephants and is equipped with a medical hoist for lifting elephants, as also an elephant restraining device with a dedicated indoor treatment enclosure for long duration medical procedures.
  • The ill-treated symbol of religion - While elephants are revered as a cultural and religious symbol in India, they are also ill-treated by their unschooled mahouts and often fall victim to electrocution, poaching, train accidents and poisoning, animal rights activists say.
  • Attracting tourists - An observation deck will allow veterinary students and interns to observe and learn about elephant's behaviour and treatment from a safe distance.
  • Milestone in conservation journey - The promoter NGO Wildlife SOS CEO Katick Satyanarayan told that this is a milestone in the conservation journey.
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  • The National Green Tribunal (NGT) has directed the Ministry of Agriculture and the Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Delhi chief secretaries to periodically review steps taken to stop crop burning incidents.
  • A bench headed by NGT Chairperson Justice Adarsh Kumar Goel said there was a need to adopt a multi-method approach through in-situ and ex-situ management of crop residue to minimise stubble burning incidents.
  • The green panel directed the states to compile data on instances of stubble burning "appropriately through revenue records" and asked the Centre to "disburse funds well in time" so that they can be utilised by the states.
  • It directed the Ministry of Agriculture to furnish a status report to the tribunal on or before April 30, 2019, and said it would consider it on May 9.
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  • Two massive wildfires in California in the United States burn out of control, claiming at least eleven lives; Scores of buildings destroyed forcing hundreds of thousands to flee their homes; President Donald Trump terms the destruction catastrophic.
  • In United States, at least 11 people have died in the most destructive wildfires ripping through north and south California.
  • More than 2.5 lakh people have been forced to flee their homes to avoid three major blazes in the state.
  • Firefighters were powerless in stopping a wildfire destroying the northern town of Paradise, where nine people died and 35 are missing.
  • Another fire swept into the affluent southern beach resort of Malibu on Friday and that has now doubled in size.
  • Two more people were reported to have died in that fire, known as the Woolsey, which now covers an area of 70,000 acres.
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  • Delhi's pollution level remained 'severe' for the second day as a thick haze engulfed the national capital, even as the authorities said there was significant improvement in the air quality as compared to 8th Nov.
  • The overall air quality index (AQI) was recorded at 426 which falls in the 'severe' category, according to data by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB).
  • The Centre-run System of Air Quality and Weather Forecasting And Research (SAFAR) said the city's air quality has "improved significantly" since Thursday, but the recovery was slow due to low surface wind speed.
  • "At present, it continued to be in 'severe' but likely to improve further and will become 'very poor' by afternoon and will improve further by 10th Nov.
  • The contribution of PM2.5 in PM10 which was 75 per cent on Thursday (against normal 55 per cent) has been reducing," the SAFAR said.
  • It also said the contribution to the PM2.5 pollution due to stubble emission was marginal.
  • Twenty eight areas in Delhi recorded 'severe' air quality, while four areas recorded 'very poor' air quality, according to the data of the CPCB.
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  • The National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) has constituted a three-member team of independent wildlife experts to probe how the man-eating tiger Avni (T1) was killed.
  • After animal activist and Union Minister Maneka Gandhi criticised the killing of Avni (which was legally sanctioned by Maharashtra’s wildlife authorities) last Sunday, the NTCA said it had asked the State’s Wildlife Department to explain the circumstances of the death.
  • Specifically, it wanted to know who actually shot the tiger and whether there was an attempt to tranquilise it.
  • On 8th Nov, Mr. Nayak told The Hindu that the NCTA had now constituted a team to investigate the killing of Avni, after visiting Yavatmal, where the tiger was shot on November 2.
  • Experienced team - “The three-member team will have experienced wildlife experts from the Wildlife Trust of India, a retired Forest officer from Kerala and NTCA’s own officer from its Nagpur division,” Mr. Nayak said.
  • The tigress which is said to have killed 13 people, was shot dead by civilian hunter Asgar Ali, who was with a team of Maharashtra Forest Department officials.
  • According to Maharashtra Forest Minister Sudhir Mungantiwar, an official allegedly attempted and failed to fire a tranquiliser dart at the tigress following which she charged at the team. Mr Ali then fired in self-defence.
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  • Earth's protective ozone layer is finally healing from damage caused by aerosol sprays and coolants, a new United Nations report has said.
  • The ozone layer had been thinning since the late 1970s. Scientists raised the alarm and ozone-depleting chemicals were phased out worldwide.
  • As a result, the upper ozone layer above the northern hemisphere should be completely repaired in the 2030s and the gaping Antarctic ozone hole should disappear in the 2060s, according to a scientific assessment released Monday at a conference in Quito, Ecuador.
  • The southern hemisphere lags a bit and its ozone layer should be healed by mid-century. "It's really good news," said report co-chairman Paul Newman, chief Earth scientist at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Centre.
  • "If ozone-depleting substances had continued to increase, we would have seen huge effects. We stopped that." High in the atmosphere, ozone shields earth from ultraviolet rays that cause skin cancer, crop damage and other problems.
  • Use of man-made chemicals called chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), which release chlorine and bromine, began eating away at the ozone.
  • In 1987, countries around the world agreed in the Montreal Protocol to phase out CFCs and businesses came up with replacements for spray cans and other uses.
  • At its worst in the late 1990s, about 10 per cent of the upper ozone layer was depleted, said Newman.
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  • Buried in the Arabian desert’s sand are clues to the peninsula’s wetter, greener past. Fossils from long-extinct elephants, antelope and jaguars paint a prehistoric scene not of a barren wasteland but of a flourishing savanna sprinkled with watering holes.
  • Now, scientists have found what they think is evidence of the activities of early human relatives, who lived in this ancient landscape some 300,000 to 500,000 years ago.
  • If the findings are confirmed, the stone flakes and butchered animal bones the researchers uncovered would be evidence that early hominins extinct members of the genus Homo but most likely not of our species were present in the Arabian Peninsula at least 100,000 years earlier than previously known.
  • The findings, published 5Nov. in the journal Nature Ecology & Evolution, also suggest early hominins did not need any special evolutionary adaptations before they ventured out from the grasslands of Africa and into the wilds of Arabia.
  • “As the savanna expanded, so did humans of this period,” said Michael Petraglia, an archaeologist from the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Germany and an author on the paper.
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  • Exposure to sources of outdoor pollution such as vehicle exhausts, and industrial emissions can increase a child's risk of developing autism spectrum disorder by up to 78 per cent, a study has warned.
  • The research followed children in Shanghai from birth to three years to understand the effect of exposure to fine particles (PM2.5).
  • The study included 124 ASD children and 1,240 healthy children in stages over a nine-year period, examining the association between air pollution and ASD.
  • The study, published in the journal Environment International, is first to examine the effects of long-term exposure of air pollution on ASD during the early life of children in a developing country, adding to previous studies that have already linked prenatal air pollution exposure to ASD in children.
  • "The causes of autism are complex and not fully understood, but environmental factors are increasingly recognised in addition to genetic and other factors," said Zhiling Guo, from Chinese Academy of Sciences.
  • "The developing brains of young children are more vulnerable to toxic exposures in the environment and several studies have suggested this could impact brain function and the immune system," Guo said.
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  • With fewer predators, raptor numbers plummeted and lizard populations rose in Chalkewadi plateauThere’s a new super-predator in Maharashtra’s Chalkewadi plateau.
  • With their constantly-whirring blades, wind turbines have decreased birds of prey here, finds a study published in Nature Ecology and Evolution on November 5.
  • It also proves, for the first time, that the ramifications of wind farms run much deeper across the food chain: superb fan-throated lizards small, colourful reptiles that the birds prey on increased in number and showed altered behaviour, physiology and even less-flamboyant body colours.
  • Wind farms arrived in Chalkewadi almost 20 years ago and Professor Maria Thaker (Bengaluru’s Indian Institute of Science) and her team studied their impact on the local ecosystem between 2012 and 2014.
  • Comparing raptor and lizard numbers in six areas with and without wind turbines, they found that wind farms had one-fourth the number of birds of prey (including eagles and kites) and showed lower predatory bird activity.
  • But the impacts didn’t end there. With fewer predators, lizard numbers shot up to almost three times more in wind farms. And these reptiles showed marked changes in behaviour.
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  • About 36% of "critically endangered" plants and trees aren't bankable under the current method because their seeds die when dried
  • International efforts to save some of the world's rarest and economically important plants from climate change are doomed to fail because their seeds cannot be stored, researchers warned on November 2.
  • As the planet heats and mankind continues to decimate natural habitats, scientists concede that the only way to save some types of vegetation is in seed banks giant repositories of thousands of species preserved for future generations.
  • Nations agreed a global strategy in 2002 to conserve at least three quarters of threatened plant species with the aim of recovering and restoring their stocks in nature at some point. Scientists working in several seed banks around the world currently conserve seeds by drying them before freezing.
  • But new research by botanists at Britain's Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, found that 36% of "critically endangered" plants and trees aren't bankable under the current method because their seeds die when dried and so cannot be preserved by freezing.
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  • Using advanced genomic techniques, a team of researchers led by Dr Hua (Emily) Ying of The Australian National University (ANU) and Prof David Miller of the ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies (Coral CoE) at James Cook University (JCU), have found that the group of corals classified as "robust,"
  • which includes a number of the brain corals and mushroom corals, have a key physiological advantage over "complex" corals, including common branching corals such as the staghorn coral.
  • In a new paper published today in the journal Genome Biology, researchers report that "robust" corals possess a unique capacity to generate an "essential" amino acid.
  • "Amino acids are the building blocks of life," said lead author Dr Emily Ying of ANU Research School of Biology.
  • "Amino acids are crucial, for example, in repairing tissue or growing new tissue. But, generating amino acids is energetically costly for animals, so they usually only generate 11 of the 20 required for life.
  • The remaining nine amino acids are called the 'essential' amino acids because they must be supplied by the animal's diet. For corals, this includes tiny drifting animals known as 'zooplankton.'"
  • "Symbiodinium also supplies the coral with some of the 'essential' amino acids, making them less dependent on their diet than other animals," said senior author Prof David Miller of Coral CoE at JCU.
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  • Scientists exploring the sea floor off the coast of central California for deep-water coral and sponges instead found an unprecedented sight: Hundreds of octopuses tucked between rocks with their tentacles inverted and covering groups of white eggs, a posture that is common among brooding females.
  • The cluster of more than 1,000 gray octopuses latching on to clean, dark rock was found last week in the Davidson Seamount, an underwater extinct volcano in the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary, Chad King, a marine biologist at the sanctuary, said 30Oct.
  • A submersible's camera found the creatures on October 23 nearly 3 kilometres below the surface during the first dive by the Nautilus, a vessel exploring the sanctuary and livestreaming its findings.
  • "This is certainly the largest cluster of brooding deep-sea octopuses that has ever been spotted," added King, who is also the chief scientist aboard the Nautilus, a research vessel with a team from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the nonprofit Ocean Exploration Trust.
  • It was the first time scientists have seen a cluster of Muusoctopus robustus octopuses off California's coast, King said.
  • This kind of aggregation of deep-sea octopuses has been reported only once before, when earlier this year a smaller group of about 100 were spotted brooding eggs in warm ocean water off the Central American nation of Costa Rica, the nonprofit said.
  • The octopuses lined up in the cracks of the clean rocks near shimmering fluid seeps that looked "kind of like a heat wave off the pavement on a hot day," which suggests warm water, King said.
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  • Country’s high population makes it vulnerable to an ecological crisis, says World Wide Fund for Nature India’s soil biodiversity is in grave peril, according to the Global Soil Biodiversity Atlas prepared by the World Wide Fund for Nature.
  • The WWF’s ‘risk index’ for the globe indicating threats from loss of above-ground diversity, pollution and nutrient over-loading, over-grazing, intensive agriculture, fire, soil erosion, desertification and climate change shows India among countries whose soil biodiversity faces the highest level of risk.
  • Coloured red on the Atlas, these include Pakistan, China, several countries in Africa and Europe, and most of North America.
  • Soil biodiversity encompasses the presence of micro-organisms, micro-fauna (nematodes and tardigrades for example), and macro-fauna (ants, termites and earthworms).
  • “A key aspect of this year’s report is the threat to soil biodiversity and pollinators [such as bees],” Ravi Singh, CEO, WWF-India, told reporters at an event marking the report’s release.
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  • Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) scientists have developed less polluting firecrackers which are not only environment friendly but 15-20 per cent cheaper than the conventional ones, Union Minister for Science & Technology, Earth Sciences, Environment, Forest & Climate Change Harsh Vardhan said on 29oct.
  • These crackers have been named as safe water releaser (SWAS), safe minimal aluminium (SAFAL) and safe thermite cracker (STAR).
  • Highlighting that the Indian Fireworks industry is over 6000-crore worth of annual turnover and provides employment opportunities to over 5 lakh families directly or indirectly, the Minister said this endeavour of CSIR aims at addressing the pollution concerns at the same time protecting the livelihoods of those involved in this trade.
  • The Minister mentioned that firecracker manufactures took keen interest with laboratories throughout the process and the new crackers would not require changes in their manufacturing facilities.
  • Dr Varshan also listed a number of steps to make further improvements in the fire crackers.
  • The Minister also informed that a raw material characterization facility is also coming up as it has been found that many times the poor quality raw materials used in fire crackers are the major sources of particulate matter pollution.
  • CSIR would be detailing further strengthening by installation of additional facilities for raw materials testing at Sivakasi.
  • This activity is likely to be initiated for testing in next two months after completion of certain formalities. This facility can come up in collaboration and partnership with Manufacturers' association Testing facilities.
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  • A UN-backed fund has approved $ 43.4 million for enhancing climate resilience for millions of people living in India’s coastal communities in Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Odisha as part of its efforts to combat extreme impacts of climate change.
  • The grant is a part of more than $ 1 billion approved by the Green Climate Fund for 19 new projects to help developing countries tackle climate change.
  • The new project will be supported through the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), and is an essential step for India in reaching its goals outlined in the Paris Agreement and 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.
  • The 21st meeting of the Green Climate Fund (GCF) Board ended 21 Oct. in Bahrain’s capital Manama, approving over one billion dollars of new projects and programmes to support climate action in developing countries, and formally launching its first replenishment, a statement from the fund said.
  • “India’s coastal areas are quite vulnerable to climate change and this project focuses on selected vulnerable areas of Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Odisha states,” said Ravi S Prasad, Joint Secretary, Climate Change, Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change, said.
  • The new project, with the GCF assistance, will not only help enhance resilience and adaptability, but also lead to emissions reduction while providing support to local communities for their livelihoods,” Prasad said.
  • The 19 new projects amount to a total investment from GCF of $ 1,038 million, and including co-financing the projects will channel over $ 4,244 million of climate finance for low-emission, climate-resilient development.
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