Current Affairs : Environment
 
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  • Dept. of Science and Technology’s forthcoming study may lead to portal with district-wise data The Department of Science and Technology (DST) will be commissioning a study to assess the climate risks faced by States in India.
  • This follows an assessment of the global warming risks faced by 12 Himalayan States and discussed at last year’s U.N. climate change conference in Poland that found States such as Assam, Arunachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand vulnerable to climate change.
  • “We eventually hope to have a climate portal, whereby users can zoom in on any district in the country and get a sense of what kind of risks climate, socio-economic are present,” said Ashutosh Sharma, Secretary, DST.
  • Last year the Indian Institutes of Technology (IIT) at Mandi and Guwahati, and the Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Bengaluru, coordinated with State authorities in Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Tripura, Arunachal Pradesh, Sikkim, the hill districts of West Bengal, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand and Jammu and Kashmir, to evolve a common methodology, and determine how districts there are equipped to deal with the vagaries of climate change.
  • The researchers prepared a ‘vulnerability index’ of each of these States based on district-level data. Vulnerability would be a measure of the inherent risks a district faces, primarily by virtue of its geography and socio-economic situation.
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  • Long-term exposure to harmful smog particles increases the risk of diabetes, a new study in China has shown, providing evidence for a link between the country's air pollution and the disease.
  • China is facing the largest diabetes problem in the world with around 11 per cent of its population suffering from the metabolic illness, according to a United States study published in 2017.
  • Increased prosperity has brought changing diets and lifestyles, along with an air pollution crisis that the World Health Organization estimates causes over a million premature deaths every year.
  • The risk of diabetes rose by about 16 percent for an increase of 10 microgrammes per cubic metre in long-term PM2.5 particle exposure, researchers from Fuwai Hospital in Beijing and Emory University in the US found in a study published online by Environment International last week.
  • "Sustained improvement of air quality will help decrease the diabetes epidemic in China," Lu Xiangfeng, one of the study's authors, told AFP in an email.
  • Researchers collected data from over 88,000 subjects across 15 provinces, estimating their exposure to PM2.5 based on satellite data from 2004 to 2015.
  • PM2.5 includes toxins like sulfate and black carbon, which can penetrate deep into the lungs or cardiovascular system, and have been linked to higher rates of lung cancer, chronic bronchitis and heart disease.
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  • The power ministry 7th march said two more electrical appliances microwave ovens and washing machines will now be assigned star ratings based on their energy efficiency metrics.
  • The star labelling programme have been formulated by the Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE), as part of its mandate, under the Energy Conservation Act, 2001, a power ministry statement said.
  • "The programme will now include these two appliances for grant of star rating in terms of their energy performance.
  • Initially, the programme for above two appliances will be implemented on a voluntary basis and will be valid up to December 31, 2020," the statement said.
  • The programme is aimed at improving energy efficiency in household appliances to reduce energy bills of common consumers.
  • The BEE has also revise the criteria for washing machine for inclusion of water efficiency in addition to energy performance for grant of star rating.
  • The ministry has estimated savings of over three billion units of electricity at consumer-end through adoption of star-rated microwave ovens and washing machines by 2030.
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  • Declaration signed to conserve and review population of Greater one-horned, Javan and Sumatran rhinos every 4 years
  • India will collaborate with Bhutan, Nepal, Indonesia and Malaysia to increase the population of three species of Asian rhinos, including the Greater one-horned rhinoceros found in the Indian sub-continent.
  • The five rhino range nations signed a declaration ‘The New Delhi Declaration on Asian Rhinos 2019’ for the conservation and protection of the species at the recently held Second Asian Rhino Range Countries meeting here.
  • During the meet, Union Environment Minister Harsh Vardhan affirmed India’s commitment towards rhino conservation.
  • The declaration was signed to conserve and review the population of the Greater one-horned, Javan and Sumatran rhinos every four years to reassess the need for joint actions to secure their future.
  • “The national strategy will pave the path for long-term conservation of the Greater one-horned rhinos in India.
  • The declaration includes undertaking studies on health issues of the rhinos, their potential diseases and taking necessary steps; collaborating and strengthening wildlife forensics for the purpose of investigation and strengthening of transboundary collaboration among India, Nepal and Bhutan for the conservation and protection of the Greater one-horned rhino.
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  • The International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) in Hyderabad has set up the world’s first gene bank that is powered entirely by solar energy.
  • Spread across 4,500 sq metres, the gene bank is powered by a 500 kW solar power plant generating 60,000 units per month. A gene bank is a type of bio-repository that preserves genetic material of plants and animals.
  • The ‘greening’ of the gene bank was funded by the German Corporation for International Cooperation (GIZ) and is expected to reduce power-related expenses by up to 75%, which will amount to huge savings over the next few decades.
  • Gene banks need constant cooling systems which sometimes need to be at temperatures of minus 20 degrees. They are home to in vitro storage of plants, freezing cuttings from a plant or stocking of seeds.
  • Such banks are critical to global food security as they conserve genetic resources of major crop plants.
  • The facility in Hyderabad is the largest in the world for ICRISAT’s mandate crops or those which can address food security issues in the semi-arid and tropics of Africa and Asia.
  • These areas which are collectively known as tropical drylands are home to two billion people out of which 600 million are considered to be poor. Their geographical focus area spreads across 55 countries and 6.5 million sq km.
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  • Animals living in the deepest ocean trenches have been found with plastic fragments in their gut, according to new research published 27th Feb. showing how manmade pollution reaches into the bowels of the planet.
  • More than 300 million tonnes of plastics are produced annually, and there are at least five trillion plastic pieces floating in our oceans.
  • Because deep-sea exploration is expensive and time-consuming, most studies on plastic pollution up until now had been close to the surface, showing a widespread level of plastic contamination in fish, turtles, whales and sea birds.
  • Now a British team of researchers say they have discovered cases of plastic ingestion among tiny shrimp in six of the world’s deepest ocean trenches.
  • In the Mariana Trench east of the Philippines, the deepest depression on Earth, 100 percent of the animals studied had plastic fibres in their digestive tracts.
  • “Half of me was expecting to find something but that is huge,” said Alan Jamieson, from Newcastle University’s School of Natural and Environmental Sciences.
  • Jamieson and his team normally spend their time looking for new species in the depths of the ocean.
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  • Dr Divya Karnad, a 33-year-old PhD in marine fisheries management from Rutgers University, New Jersey, USA, who is also an assistant professor of Environment Studies at Ashoka University.
  • She is a Wipro Sustainable Fellow and her brain child, InSeason Fish, a sustainable seafood initiative based in Tamil Nadu, and Young Women in Conservation programme among other marine conservation programmes enabled her to win the prestigious 50,000 euro award.
  • Dr Divya Karnad was chosen from a list of 125 global applicants by an international jury consisting of global conservationists.
  • The key focus areas of her work include, marine conservation of endangered species of Olive Ridley turtles, sustainable fishing practices, reduction in bycatch of endangered sharks along Coromandel coast and establishing linkages between sea food consumers and fishermen.
  • Speaking on her stellar achievements, Simon Stuart of the International Selection Committee said, " Divya is clearly an outstanding leader and has already initiated an impressive number of programmes and organisations focussed on marine species conservation in India.
  • She is now giving her attention to multiple globally threatened shark species, working with an impressively wide array of stakeholders."
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  • At least five new species of jumping spiders have been discovered from different parts of India over the past year
  • Last week, a group of arachnologists from Thrissur came across a spider that had never been reported before. Hidden in the crevices of the bark of teak trees, Cocalus lacinia are hairy, yellow-brown spiders with a distinctive v-shaped mark on their head.
  • They happen to be closely related to a species of spider in Australia, adding to the theory that the continents were once united.
  • A couple of year earlier, this time in Assam, another researcher stumbled upon a large, hairy eight-eyed arachnid that had made a nest for itself between two leaves.
  • He snapped a picture and posted it on Instagram, and last December, it was established that this was Hyllus diardi, a spider known to be so ‘friendly’, it’s kept as a pet in parts of the world.
  • In the middle of last year, in West Bengal, a wildlife photographer chanced upon a bunch of very tiny spiders lurking in an orchard.
  • They were identified later as belonging to the genus Neobrettus, which lives, hunts and breeds in the dried leaves of the banana plant.
  • They are related to another genus, Portia, found across south and southeast Asia, Africa and Australia and known for their remarkably intelligent hunting behaviour and their penchant for feeding on other spiders.
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  • Hike around the natural habitats of San Diego County and it becomes abundantly clear that honey bees, foreign to the area, are everywhere.
  • In a study published last year, researchers at the University of California San Diego found that honey bees are the most widespread and abundant pollinators of wild plants in the world, with the San Diego region having exceptionally high honey bee visitation on native plants roughly three-quarters of all observed pollinators.
  • New research from the same team found that honey bees focus their foraging on the most abundantly flowering native plant species, where they often account for more than 90 percent of pollinators observed visiting flowers.
  • The new study by Keng-Lou James Hung, Jennifer Kingston, Adrienne Lee, David Holway and Joshua Kohn of UC San Diego's Division of Biological Sciences is published on Feb. 20 in Proceedings of the Royal Society B.
  • "To have a non-native species that removes the lion's share of pollen and nectar in a diverse ecosystem such as ours is stunning" said Kohn, a professor in the Section of Ecology, Behavior and Evolution. "Think about if we had an invasive plant that covered 75 percent of the region's land area it's similar to that level."
  • The honey bees' monopoly over the most abundantly blooming plant species may strongly affect the ecology and evolution of species that are foundational to the stability of the region's plant-pollinator interactions, the researchers said.
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  • The courtship went on for 10 whole days. They were kept apart, but tantalizingly close enough so that each could see, hear and smell the other.
  • When the matchmakers believed that the time and the place were right Friday at London Zoo the rare Sumatran tiger called Asim and a female named Melati were put in the same enclosure together.
  • The animals “were initially cautious,” but then the introduction "quickly escalated into a more aggressive interaction. He killed her moments after they were introduced for the first time.
  • The animal’s handlers scrambled in vain to intervene, the zoo said, "using loud noises, flares and alarms to try and distract the pair, but Asim had already overpowered Melati".
  • Keepers eventually were able to shepherd Asim into a separate paddock so that they could safely get to Melati, the zoo said. Vets then confirmed that she had died.
  • "Everyone at ZSL London Zoo is devastated and we are heartbroken," the zoo said. Melati was 10 and had been a longtime resident of the zoo. Asim, age 7, arrived from Ree Park Safari in Denmark on January 29."
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  • 2016 remains the hottest year on record; U.N.’s World Meterological Organisation also said that the 20 warmest years in history all occurred within the last 22 years.
  • The last four years were the hottest since global temperature records began, the U.N. confirmed on February 6 in an analysis that it said was a “clear sign of continuing long-term climate change”.
  • The U.N.’s World Meterological Organisation said in November that 2018 was set to be the fourth warmest year in recorded history, stressing the urgent need for action to rein in runaway planetary warming.
  • On February 6, it incorporated the final weeks of 2018 into its climate models and concluded that average global surface temperature in 2018 was 1°C (1.8°F) above pre-industrial baseline levels.
  • 2016, boosted by a strong El Nino that normally tips the mercury northwards, remains the hottest year on record.
  • The WMO also said that the 20 warmest years in history all occurred within the last 22 years.
  • “The long-term temperature trend is far more important than the ranking of individual years, and that trend is an upward one,” said WMO Secretary-General Petteri Taalas. “The degree of warming during the past four years has been exceptional, both on land and in the ocean.”
  • The WMO said heightened temperatures also contributed to a number of extreme weather events such as hurricanes, droughts and flash flooding.
  • “Many of the extreme weather events are consistent with what we expect from a changing climate. This isthe reality we need to face up to,” Mr. Taalas said.
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  • Perovskites-coated cells are light, flexible and inexpensive What if one day all buildings could be equipped with windows and facades that satisfy the structure’s every energy need, whether rain or shine?
  • That sustainability dream is today one step closer to becoming a reality thanks to Polish physicist and businesswoman Olga Malinkiewicz.
  • The 36-year-old has developed a novel inkjet processing method for perovskites a new generation of cheaper solar cells that makes it possible to produce solar panels under lower temperatures, thus sharply reducing costs.
  • “In our opinion, perovskite solar cells have the potential to address the world energy poverty,” said Mohammad Khaja Nazeeruddin, a professor at Switzerland’s Federal Institue of Technology Lausanne.
  • Solar panels coated with the mineral are light, flexible, efficient, inexpensive and come in varying hues and degrees of transparency.
  • They can easily be fixed to almost any surface be it laptop, car, drone, spacecraft or building to produce electricity, including in the shade or indoors.
  • Though the excitement is new, perovskite has been known to science since at least the 1830s, when it was first identified by German mineralogist Gustav Rose while prospecting in the Ural mountains and named after Russian mineralogist Lev Perovski.
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  • Scientists have warned that the global sea level may be rising faster than previously thought.
  • The research, published in the journal Science, questions the reliability of how sea-level rise in areas such as southern Louisiana in the US is measured.
  • It further stated that the current measurement method underestimates the severity of the problem.
  • Relative sea-level rise, which is a combination of rising water level and subsiding land, is traditionally measured using tide gauges.
  • Researchers from Tulane University in the US argue that in coastal Louisiana, tide gauges tell only a part of the story.
  • The study found that while tide gauges can accurately measure subsidence that occurs below their foundations, they miss out on the shallow subsidence component.
  • With at least 60 per cent of subsidence occurring in the top five metres of the sediment column, tide gauges are not capturing the primary contributor to relative sea-level rise.
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  • Elon Musk announced 31st jan. he had released all of the electric carmaker Tesla’s patents, as part of an effort to fight climate change.
  • In a blog post, the colourful billionaire founder of Tesla promised the company “will not initiate patent lawsuits against anyone who, in good faith, wants to use our technology.”
  • It was a remarkable move in an industry where the smallest idea or seed of invention is carefully guarded to protect its monetary value.
  • And it in fact came on the same day US prosecutors charged a Chinese national with stealing secrets from Apple’s self-driving vehicle project.
  • “Tesla Motors was created to accelerate the advent of sustainable transport,” Musk said.
  • In fact Musk said he was now sceptical of patents which too often only served “to stifle progress” and helped enrich giant corporations and lawyers rather than inventors.
  • He said he had earlier felt compelled to file patents for Tesla to prevent big car companies from copying the technology and using the huge marketing and sales apparatus to take over the market.
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  • An enormous great white shark believed to be one of the biggest on record has been spotted off the coast of Hawaii by divers who took a swim with the predator.
  • The 20-foot (six-meter) female shark bearing similar markings as “Deep Blue,” the largest great white shark recorded made its surprise appearance on Tuesday, joining other sharks feasting on a sperm whale carcass off Oahu.
  • “We saw a few (tiger sharks) and then she came up and all the other sharks split, and she started brushing up against the boat,” said Ocean Ramsey, one of the divers, recounting the extraordinary encounter to the Honolulu Star Adviser.
  • “She was just this big beautiful gentle giant wanting to use our boat as a scratching post,” added Ramsey, who swam with the shark all day and captured stunning pictures. “We went out at sunrise, and she stayed with us pretty much throughout the day.
  • ” Ramsey said the animal, believed to be at least 50 years old and weighing an estimated 2.5 tonnes, was “shockingly wide” and may be pregnant.
  • Sightings of great white sharks are rare in Hawaii, where the water is too warm.
  • “Deep Blue,” which has her own Twitter account and was the subject of a documentary several years ago, had previously been spotted around Guadalupe Island off Mexico.
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  • Methanol (M-15) blended with petrol and used in the existing BS-IV standard cars reduces carbon dioxide emission, a study conducted by Pune-based Automotive Research Association of India (ARAI) has shown.
  • The finding has been submitted to Union Minister for Transport Nitin Gadkari, who said that the Ministry was keen to support further research on methanol blending as the government aims to increase fuel blending to 20 per cent by 2030.
  • Emission evaluation - Gadkari said the Centre would help all research efforts on methanol blending. He was speaking at a symposium organised by the International Automotive Technology (SIAT).
  • According to the ARAI, the study evaluated emissions in real-world conditions and used 15 per cent M-15 blend in vehicles and tested them for 3,000 km.
  • “India imports ₹7 lakh crore worth of crude oil every year. Using alternative fuels, we can divert ₹2 lakh crore for farmers to boost agriculture.
  • We have to focus on indigenous pollution-free technology to substitute imports and save money.
  • The government has commissioned 35 Scania buses in Nagpur which are running on 100 per cent bio-ethanol.
  • Ten buses each will be given to Pune, Mumbai, Navi Mumbai and Guwahati,” Gadkari said.
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  • Tripura Chief Minister Biplab Kumar Deb 16th jan. launched a project for Sustainable Catchment Forest Management at State Forest Academy Ground in Hatipara in West Tripura and said the project would help develop the quality of forestlands and livelihood of forest dwellers in the state.
  • The project is jointly funded by the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) and Government of India.
  • “JICA is providing us Rs. 1,000 crores for a span of 10 years to improve forestlands in targeted catchment areas of Tripura.
  • This will involve sustainable forest management, soil and moisture conservation and livelihood development”, Chief Minister Deb said at the inaugural event this afternoon.
  • Eighty per cent of the project would be funded by JICA while Government of India would fund 20 per cent of the project value.
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  • Chinese scientists say they have grown the first plants on the moon as part of the country’s lunar mission.
  • Pictures sent back Jan. 12 showed plant shoots growing well nine days after the experiment was initiated, Chongqing University, which led the biological project, said in a briefing 15th jan
  • The biopsy test load carried cotton, canola, potato, Arabidopsis, yeast and fruit fly. Crops were exposed to high vacuum, temperature differences, and strong radiation.
  • After becoming the first country in the world to land a spacecraft on the far side of the moon, China is planning four more missions to get samples back before studying the feasibility of a lunar research base.
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  • Modern day garbage dumps, which are full of harmful products and chemicals, are emerging as a serious threat to animal and plant life.
  • A new study has found that these dumps are resulting in a shift in food habits of birds and wild animals.
  • The main culprit is plastic waste which is known to cause health complications and disruptive reproductive patterns in animals that accidently ingest it.
  • It also causes environmental pollution through chemicals leaching from it. The study examined the relationship between animal type and behavior vis-à-vis the risk of plastic ingestion.
  • The researchers used direct observation as well as infrared camera-traps to monitor animal visits and food intake behaviour at two selected sites in the Nainital district.
  • The sites were monitored for 2 to 3 hours daily for a period of two months and scanning was done every 10 minutes throughout the observation period.
  • Feeding patterns and frequency of animal and bird visits to these garbage sites was recorded. A total of 32 species of animals and birds were identified which were seen to feed on garbage.
  • Based on the observed behavior of animal at the sites, researchers divided them into different groups. Peckers, who used beaks to pull out food from plastics, included 19 species of birds.
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  • Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) Tripura Asset would soon start extracting natural gas from Trishna Wildlife Sanctuary in Belonia subdivision of Gomati district following National Wildlife Board’s clearance of its proposal.
  • “We have discovered 10-12 gas bearing wells long back in Trishna Wildlife sanctuary. As the gas bearing zones are in the wildlife sanctuary, we needed permission from the National Wildlife Board.
  • The National Wildlife Board, following recommendations from the state Wildlife Board, has cleared the project on 10th jan,” Gautam Kumar Singha Roy, Asset Manager of ONGC Tripura Asset told reporters here.
  • He said that after the state Wildlife Board sanctioned the project on September 17, the state government had taken up the issue with National Wildlife Board.
  • He said ONGC has begun laying the pipeline and the entire process would be completed shortly.
  • The gas extracted from Trishna Wildlife Sanctuary would be transported to the North Eastern Electric Power Corporation Ltd (NEEPCO) owned 100 MW gas-based thermal power project at Monarchak in Sonamura subdivision of Sipahijala district.
  • The official said that the ONGC Tripura Asset has completed the exploration target for 2018-19 three months ahead of schedule.
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  • There has been a drop in the number of winter birds flocking the Bhitarkanika National Park here, prompting wildlife officials to find out the reasons behind it.
  • The annual census report of winter migratory birds released by the forest department on 7th Jan. said that the number of avian winter species has come down to 1,09,059 against 1,12,937 last year.
  • While 83 species of feathered guests had thronged the national park last year, the latest headcount could spot 74 species of birds, they said.
  • Many of the spots where the birds were spotted last time, no sighting was made this time, they said.
  • Despite the drop in the number of migratory birds, hordes of rare and endangered avian species were sighted along wetland spots.
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  • A 612-pound (278-kilogram) bluefin tuna sold for a record 333.6 million yen (Rs 21 crore) in the first auction of 2019, after Tokyo’s famed Tsukiji market was moved to a new site on the city’s waterfront.
  • The winning bid for the prized but threatened species at the predawn auction 5th Jan. was more than double the 2013 annual New Year auction.
  • It was paid by Kiyomura Corp., whose owner Kiyoshi Kimura runs the Sushi Zanmai chain. Kimura has often won the annual auction in the past.
  • Japanese broadcaster NHK showed a beaming Kimura saying that he was surprised by the high price of tuna this year. But he added: “The quality of the tuna I bought is the best.”
  • The auction prices are way above usual for bluefin tuna. The fish normally sells for up to $40 a pound ($88 a kilogram) but the price rises to over $200 a pound near the year’s end, especially for prized catches from Oma in northern Japan.
  • Last year’s auction was the last at Tsukiji before the market shifted to a new facility on a former gas plant site on Tokyo Bay. The move was delayed repeatedly due to concerns over soil contamination.
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  • The ocean has a long memory. When the water in today's deep Pacific Ocean last saw sunlight, Charlemagne was the Holy Roman Emperor, the Song Dynasty ruled China and Oxford University had just held its very first class.
  • During that time, between the 9th and 12th centuries, the earth's climate was generally warmer before the cold of the Little Ice Age settled in around the 16th century.
  • Now ocean surface temperatures are back on the rise but the question is, do the deepest parts of the ocean know that
  • Researchers from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) and Harvard University have found that the deep Pacific Ocean lags a few centuries behind in terms of temperature and is still adjusting to the entry into the Little Ice Age.
  • Whereas most of the ocean is responding to modern warming, the deep Pacific may be cooling.
  • "These waters are so old and haven't been near the surface in so long, they still 'remember' what was going on hundreds of years ago when Europe experienced some of its coldest winters in history," said Jake Gebbie, a physical oceanographer at WHOI and lead author of the study published Jan. 4, 2019, in the journal Science.
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  • The fast-growing species can tolerate a wide variety of environmental conditions From clambering lantana plants to karimeen-like red-bellied paku, invasive species come in all sizes.
  • The latest addition to Kerala’s invasives list is only around a centimetre or two long: scientists have confirmed the presence of the invasive black-striped mussel Mytilopsis sallei in Kochi’s backwaters.
  • 'Alien' mussel - In a study published on December 25 in the scientific journal Current Science, researchers at the Cochin University of Science and Technology (Cusat) used basic genetic methods to confirm the identity of mussels they collected from Cochin harbour and Ezhupunna in Alappuzha.
  • They extracted DNA from these mussels. While running this through an international online database, they matched it to the DNA of mussels observed from the Lam Tsuen River in Hong Kong (China), confirming that it is the same species that is now found in Kochi’s backwaters.
  • The black-striped mussell, native to the South and Central Americas, is an invasive species in most parts of the world and has been recorded from countries including Hong Kong, Australia and Japan.
  • In India, it has been recorded from the ports of Mumbai (Maharashtra) and Vishakapatnam (Andhra Pradesh).
  • It spreads primarily through the discharge of ballast waters of ships (seawater carried in the ballast tanks of ships to improve its stability and balance).
  • The fast-growing species which dwells in shallow water can tolerate a wide variety of environmental conditions (salinity, water temperatures and oxygen levels; tests in the laboratory confirmed this again), which helps them thrive in the new areas they colonise.
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  • If you observe closely, the amount of single-use plastic on a passenger airline is enough to contribute significantly to global pollution.
  • Portuguese airline Hi Fly decided to bring about a change by introducing single-use plastic free flight.
  • The flight took off on 26 Dec. from Lisbon to Natale, Brazil, without a single piece of single-use plastic on board.
  • There were no plastic cups, plastic silverware, plastic cocktail stirrer, and plastic food containers, Fast Company reported.
  • Although this was only a test run for the company hoping to completely ban single-use plastic from all its flights in 2019, more test runs like these will see plastic containers and cutlery replaced with more natural bamboo cutlery, compostable containers, and other items made of plant-based, renewable, low-carbon or recycled materials.
  • Other airlines such as Air New Zealand and Alaska Airlines are also following similar approaches to reduce their plastic usage onboard.
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