Current Affairs : India
 

  • India and Israel on 15 Jan signed nine agreements, including in the areas of cyber security and oil and gas, following delegation-level talks headed by Prime Ministers Narendra Modi and Benjamin Netanyahu here.
  • A memorandum of understanding (MoU) on cooperation in cyber security was signed. A second MoU was signed between the Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas and Israel`s Ministry of Energy in oil and gas sector.
  • A protocol between India and Israel on amendments to the air transport agreement was also signed. Another agreement was on film-co-production between India and Israel.
  • A third MoU between the Central Council for Research in Homeopathy, Ministry of AYUSH and the Centre for Integrative Complementary Medicine, Shaare Zedek Medical Centre of Israel, related to cooperation in the field of research in homeopathic medicine.
  • Another MoU between Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology (IIST) and the Technion- Israel Institute of Technology for cooperation in the field of space was signed.
  • A memorandum of intent was on Invest India and Invest in Israel. Indian Oil and Israel`s Phinergy Ltd signed a letter of intent for cooperation in the area of metal-air batteries.
  • Another letter of intent between Indian Oil and Israel`s Yeda Research and Development Co Ltd was signed for cooperation in the area of concentrated solar thermal technologies.

  • The government is planning to raise 15 new battalions in the country's two important border guarding forces the BSF and the ITBP to fortify defence along the strategic frontiers with Pakistan, Bangladesh and China.
  • A senior official in the Union home ministry told PTI that it is "actively considering" raising six fresh battalions in the Border Security Force (BSF) and nine in the Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP) force.
  • Each battalion of these forces comprises about 1,000 operational jawans and officers.
  • Sources in the BSF said the force has projected enhancing manpower by sanctioning of new units so that they can be deployed in the Assam and West Bengal flanks of the Indo- Bangladesh border even as a similar addition in numbers is required to effectively guard the Indo-Pak International Border (IB), especially in Punjab and Jammu regions, in the near future.
  • "The exact locations for the new battalions could be gauged as and when they are raised but a few areas along Bangladesh and Pakistan will remain a priority owing to their vulnerability profile such as infiltration, drugs smuggling, human trafficking and illegal migration," a senior BSF officer said.
  • Similarly, the ITBP has been trying to reduce the inter- BoP (border out post) distance at the 3,488-km long icy frontier that it is tasked with guarding.

  • There is something wrong with the parrot drawn on a black wall in this uneven Ghatkopar slum. Its neck is missing and it seems to be inspecting its own back at an odd angle.
  • The parrot, it turns out, used to be an owl. An artist had drawn the nocturnal bird first but then the rustic residents of Sahyadri 2 one of the many slums perched like Lego blocks on this Asalpha hillock decided that they didn't want to wake up to "a bad omen". So, his chalk hastily replaced the hawk-like beak with a pouty, curved bill.
  • From the Mumbai Metro, however, you won't be able to see this mutant bird. Nor the mural of a cat sitting inside a soapy bubble inspired by a resident's kitten or the painting of a palm holding a turtle whose blueprint, Hari, lives nearby. All you can see from the air-conditioned train is a loud, multi-coloured installation of shanties that is likely to make filmmaker Rohit Shetty go: "Next song location."
  • Last month, Dedeepya Reddy's non-profit initiative 'Chal Rang De' tied up with the Metro and paint manufacturer Snowcem Paints to give the drab vertical slum a postcard-like makeover reminiscent of Italy's vibrant Positano village.
  • As a Metro traveller, the artist in her would cringe at the morose sight of the grey hilltop houses. An eye-popping paint job could change the perception of Mumbai's slums, decided Reddy, cofounder of creative agency Fruitbowl Digital.

  • President Ram Nath Kovind on 14 jan inaugurated the 'Economic Democracy Conclave' at Thane, being organised by Rambhau Mhalgi Prabodhini with an aim to create a platform for young entrepreneurs and self-employed individuals and provide them motivation, networking and mentoring.
  • While addressing the young entrepreneurs, the President asked them to take the advantage of being around Mumbai as the city has entrepreneurial potential.
  • President also said that the government has been running many schemes under development program for everyone, whose benefits are reaching people.

  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi and his Israeli counterpart Benjamin Netanyahu on 14 Jan attended a ceremony at the Teen Murti Memorial+ here to mark the renaming of Teen Murti Chowk as Teen Murti Haifa Chowk.
  • The two leaders also laid a wreath and signed the visitor's book at the memorial.Netanyahu, who arrived on a six-day visit today, was received by Modi.
  • The three bronze statues at Teen Murti represent the Hyderabad, Jodhpur and Mysore Lancers who were part of the 15 Imperial Service Cavalry Brigade.
  • The brigade carried out the victorious assault on the fortified city of Haifa on September 23, 1918, during World War I.
  • There are various accounts of this battle - all narrate the valour with which the lancers undertook the assault on the garrisoned city protected by a joint force of Ottomans, Germany and Austria-Hungary.
  • The liberation of Haifa cleared a supply route for the Allies to the city through the sea.44 Indian soldiers made the ultimate sacrifice during the liberation of the city in World War I.Till date, the 61 Cavalry celebrates September 23 as its Raising Day or "Haifa Day."

  • Looking to bring a wave of labour reforms this year, the government will push its first labour code Wage Code Bill in the forthcoming budget session which would enable it to set benchmark minimum wage for different regions.
  • "Wage Code Bill will be the first labour code which would be pushed for passage in the budget session. Labour ministry is expecting Parliament's select committee to table the bill in the budget session beginning by the end of this month," a source said.
  • The draft Code on Wages Bill 2017 was introduced in the Lok Sabha in August 2017. Thereafter, it was referred to the select committee for scrutiny.
  • The bill seeks to combine Payment of Wages Act, 1936, the Minimum Wages Act, 1949, the Payment of Bonus Act, 1965, and the Equal Remuneration Act, 1976 into one code.
  • The Ministry of Labour and Employment aims to combine over 44 labour laws into four broad codes in wages, industrial relations, social security, and occupational safety, health and working conditions.
  • "The other three codes are at different levels of consultations with the stakeholders. These bills would also be pushed for passage in the Parliament by the labour ministry this year," the source added.
  • The codification of labour laws will remove the multiplicity of definitions and authorities, leading to ease of compliance without compromising wage security and social security to workers

  • The Bar Council of India (BCI) has formed a seven-member delegation which will attempt to bridge the apparent rift between four senior Supreme Court judges and Chief Justice of India (CJI) Dipak Misra.
  • The meeting comes in the wake of allegations made by four apex court judges against the CJI at a first of its kind press conference held on 12Jan .
  • "We have unanimously decided to form a 7-member delegation of the Council who will meet honourable judges of the Supreme Court. We want that the matter be solved at the earliest," BCI chairman Manan Kumar Mishra told mediapersons on 13 Jan
  • The BCI chairman criticized the attempts by political leaders to intervene in the judiciary's internal matter and asked them to refrain from doing so any further.
  • "On behalf of Bar Council of India, I request political parties to not politicize the matter. We do not want the judiciary's image to be tarnished. People have unflinching faith in the judiciary," he appealed.
  • The four seniormost judges - Justices Jasti Chelameswar, Ranjan Gogoi, Madan B Lokur and Kurian Joseph - alleged that the CJI has been arbitrarily assigning important cases to benches headed by junior SC judges, ignoring senior ones.
  • Addressing the media on the lawns of Chelameswar's bungalow on Tughlaq Road, barely 200 metres from the CJI's residence, the judges said they were forced to hold the press conference because a letter they had sent to the CJI two months ago pointing out mistakes had gone unanswered.

  • Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) launched 31 satellites in a Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) from its spaceport of Sriharikota in Andhra Pradesh on 12 Jan.
  • "The 28-hour countdown began at 5.29 a.m. in the mission control for the rocket launch at 9.28 a.m. on 12 jan," said ISRO) on its website.
  • The spaceport Sriharikota High Altitude Range (SHAR) is located about 80 km northeast of Chennai off the Bay of Bengal coast.
  • "The propellant filling operation of fourth stage of PSLV-C40 is under progress," said an update on ISRO's website on 11 Jan morning.
  • The 31 satellites with a combined weight of 1,323 kg have been integrated with the PSLV-C40 for deploying them in the earth's lower orbit after lift off.Of the 31 satellites, three are Indian and 28 are from six countries: Canada, Finland, France, South Korea, UK and the US.
  • The Indian satellites are 710 kg Cartosat-2 series for Earth observation, a 100 kg micro satellite and a five kg nano satellite.
  • The first space mission in 2018 onboard the PSLV-C40 comes four months after a similar rocket failed to deliver the country's eighth navigation satellite in the earth's lower orbit on August 31, 2017.

  • The Supreme Court collegium has recommended the name of senior advocate Indu Malhotra as the first woman lawyer to be directly appointed as a judge of the apex court.
  • She will be the seventh woman judge since independence to make it to the Supreme Court. At present, Justice R Banumathi is the lone woman judge in the apex court.
  • The first woman to be appointed as a judge of the apex court was Justice M Fathima Beevi in 1989.
  • Thereafter, Justice Sujata V Manohar, Justice Ruma Pal, Justice Gyan Sudha Misra and Justice Ranjana Prakash Desai made it to the top court as judges.

  • India and the Maldives pressed the reset button in ties with the latter's foreign minister Mohamed Asim briefing his counterpart Sushma Swaraj and PM Narendra Modi about Male's position on a host of issues that seemed to be plaguing the bilateral relationship in recent times.
  • Asim, who visited India also as President Abdulla Yameen's special envoy, reiterated Male's 'India First' policy and, according to a statement issued by India, emphasised that Maldives attached the highest priority to its ties with India.
  • According to official sources here, Asim did not just assure India that Male will do nothing to jeopardise India's security interests but also said in his meetings with both Modi and Swaraj that the Maldives would expedite work on India's developmental projects which the two countries had announced during Yameen's visit to India. Progress on these projects had been patchy until now.
  • Discussions in Asim's meetings with Modi and Swaraj centred around strengthening of the development partnership between India and Maldives and enhancing defence and security cooperation, said the Indian government.

  • In an unprecedented move, four senior most judges of the Supreme Court on 12 jan called a press conference and said the situation in the top court was "not in order" and many "less than desirable" things have taken place.
  • Unless this institution is preserved, "democracy will not survive in this country," the four judges said.
  • Justice J Chelameswar, the second senior judge after the Chief Justice of India, said "sometimes administration of the Supreme Court is not in order and many things which are less than desirable have happened in the last few months".

  • The Supreme Court on 9 jan revoked its interim order on mandatory playing of national anthem before movie screenings in cinema halls after multiple instances of vigilante patriotism.
  • This comes a day after the Centre filed an affidavit informing the top court that it was in favour of modification of the November 2016 order, a complete turnabout from its previous stand on the issue.
  • Accepting attorney general K K Venugopal's suggestion, the bench headed by Chief Justice of India (CJI) Dipak Misra said playing of national anthem in cinema halls will henceforth be optional.
  • Venugopal said the Centre has constituted a 12-member inter-ministerial group to study and suggest possible changes in the Insult to National Honour Act, 1971 for incorporating measures to enhance respect for the national anthem.
  • The inter-ministerial committee will take at least six months to study all aspects relating to signing and screening of national anthem and the manner of respect due to it and give recommendations to the Centre.
  • The apex court had on November 30, 2016 directed that all cinema halls must play national anthem before screening of films saying that "it would instill the feeling within one, a sense committed patriotism and nationalism".

  • Baba Budangiri, 250 km from Bengaluru, where coffee was first grown in India, is going for Geographical Indication (GI) of its variety of the Arabica brew.
  • On January 1, the Coffee Board filed an application for the GI tagging of Baba Budangiri Arabica and four other varieties Coorg Arabica, Wayanad Robusta, Chikmagalur Arabic and Araku Valley Arabica with the Geographical Indication Registry at Chennai.
  • Coffee Board head (coffee quality) K Basavaraj said: "We have applied for the GI marker and we are also profiling the majority variety grown in Baba Budangiri, a variety called Selection-795," Basavaraj said.
  • Selection-795 (S-795) is considered to be the natural descendant of two of the oldest African cultivars of coffee Coffea Arabica and Coffea Liberica and a third variety is called Kent. Currently, S-795 is the most prominent coffee grown at Baba Budangiri
  • Edmund Hull in his book 'Coffee Planting in Southern India and Ceylon' says that Coffea Arabica originated in Caffa in southern Abyssina and then found its way to Yemen.
  • According to John Shortt's 'A Handbook on Coffee Planting in Southern India', Baba Budan (Baba Booden), a Muslim pilgrim, brought the brew from Mocha, a port city in Yemen, in the 17th century and introduced the variety in the uninhabited hills that came to be known as Baba Budangiri

  • Striking hard at the societal tendency to impose restrictions on girls with regard to their choice of dress, profession and life partner, the Supreme Court on 5 Jan declared that an adult woman enjoyed an unfettered right to lead a life of her choice.
  • "It needs no special emphasis to state that attaining the age of majority in an individual's life has its own significance. S/he is entitled to make her/his choice.
  • The courts cannot, as long as the choice remains, assume the role of parens patriae (legal protector)," said a bench of Chief Justice Dipak Misra and Justices A M Khanwilkar and D Y Chandrachud.
  • "The daughter is entitled to enjoy her freedom as the law permits and the court should not assume the role of super guardian being moved by any kind of sentiment of the mother or egotism of the father. We say so without any reservation," it said.
  • Reiteration of constitutional respect to a girl's choice in the face of parental and societal pressures assume significance as the apex court had recently followed the same principle while permitting Hadiya to pursue her studies, despite the love-jihad allegations levelled by her father and the Kerala HC decision to annul her marriage to a Muslim man after conversion.
  • Before rejecting a Thiruvananthapuram-based mother's emotive plea seeking to wrest custody of her daughter from her estranged husband in Kuwait, the judges on the bench interacted with the 19-year-old girl, whose father was ordered to produce her before the court, and ascertained her choice.

  • India has imposed antidumping duty on as many as 98 products, as on December 27 last year, imported from China, Parliament was informed on 3 jan.
  • The products on which the duty was imposed include flax fabrics, vitamin C, certain fibres and chemicals, Minister of State for Commerce and Industry C R Chaudhary said in a written reply to Rajya Sabha.
  • He also said trade deficit with China stood at USD 36.73 billion during April-October this fiscal.
  • Increasing trade deficit with China can be attributed primarily to the fact that Chinese exports to India rely strongly on manufactured items to meet the demand of fast expanding sectors like telecom and power," he said.
  • Countries initiate antidumping probes to determine if the domestic industry has been hurt by a surge in below-cost imports.
  • As a counter measure, they impose duties under the multilateral WTO regime.

  • Rajinder Khanna, former chief of the country's external intelligence agency RAW, was today appointed as Deputy National Security Adviser, according to an official order.
  • The post was lying vacant since Arvind Gupta, a former Indian Foreign Service (IFS) officer, completed his tenure in August last year. Gupta was in August 2014 appointed to the post.
  • Khanna, a 1978 batch Research and Analysis Wing Service (RAS) officer, has supervised several counter-terrorism operations and is considered an expert on Pakistan and Islamic terrorism
  • The Appointments Committee of the Cabinet headed by Prime Minister Narendra Modi has approved the appointment of Khanna as Deputy NSA on re-employment and on contractual basis, the order issued by personnel ministry said, without mentioning his tenure.
  • Khanna is at present Officer on Special Duty (Neighbourhood Studies) in the National Security Council Secretariat.
  • Neighbourhood Studies prepares policy papers of neighbouring countries including Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and Nepal.

  • In what could help India leapfrog others in the field of 'materials characterisation', six Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) and the International Advanced Research Centre for Powder Metallurgy and New Materials (ARCI), Hyderabad, have come together to put in place a state-of-the-art 'atomic probe' research in collaboration with department of science and technology's (DST) 'Nano' mission.
  • These seven institutions, under the leadership of IITMadras, brought to India its first Local Electrode Atom Probe (LEAP) equipment at a cost of Rs 32 crore, making it one of the major hubs of research in designing materials with tailored properties.
  • This is expected to have a major impact across industries from steel to automobiles and energy to transport. Globally, there are 90 LEAP platforms.
  • The one installed at IIT-Madras in July 2017 is the first of its kind as it can be operated from anywhere in the world.
  • This is a high-performance microscope that provides a precise atom-by-atom view of a material, enabling a true three-dimensional (3D) atomic scale reconstruction and is expected to impart a thrust to research in nanotechnology, among other fields.

  • State-owned Oil and Natural Gas Corp (ONGC) has made a significant oil and gas discovery to the west of its prime Mumbai High fields in the Arabian Sea, oil minister Dharmendra Pradhan said on 1 Jan.
  • In a written reply to a question in the Lok Sabha, he said the discovery was made in the well WO-24-3 (WO-24-C) drilled west of Mumbai High fields.
  • Though a holiday was declared for Parliament, replies to questions were posted on the Lok Sabha website."Based on the data generated during drilling, 9 objects/zones were identified and on testing all the objects flowed oil/gas," he said.
  • The discovery has indicated potential in-place reserves of about 29.74 million tonnes of oil and oil equivalent gas, he said.
  • "The 9th object on testing flowed oil at the rate of 3,310 barrels per day and gas at the rate of 17,071 cubic meter per day," the minister said. "This multi-layered oil and gas accumulation in this well opened up new area for exploration/development."
  • Mumbai High, India's biggest oil field, currently produces 205,000 barrels of oil per day (just over 10 million tonnes per annum) and the new find would add to that production in less than two years' time.
  • ONGC is carrying out a further appraisal of the discovery and has intimated upstream regulator the Directorate General of Hydrocarbons (DGH).
  • The new find, which comes almost 50 years after ONGC began production in Mumbai High, will help the company maintain production levels from the basin for a longer time than currently estimated.

  • State-owned gas utility GAIL India Ltd today said it has commissioned the country's second largest rooftop solar power plant.
  • The firm has installed a 5.76 MWp (Mega Watt peak) solar plant at its petrochemical complex at Pata in Uttar Pradesh, a company statement said. The plant over the roofs of warehouses covers a total area of 65,000 square meters.
  • "With an expected PLF of around 15 per cent annually, over 79 lakh KWh (or units) of electricity is targeted to be generated for captive use of India's largest gas-based petrochemcials plant," it said.
  • Tata Power Solar had in December 2015 commissioned a 12 MW solar rooftop project in Amritsar, which produces more than 150 lakh units of power annually and offset over 19,000 tonne of carbon emissions every year.
  • India plans to have 40 GW of rooftop photovoltaics (PV) by 2022. This is part of its target of having 175 GW of non-hydro renewables capacity by 2022- made up of 60 GW onshore wind, 60 GW utility-scale solar, 10 GW bio-energy, 5 GW small hydro and 40 GW rooftop solar. It currently has 60 GW of renewable energy capacity.

  • State Bank of India has reduced its Base Rate - an older lending benchmark - by 30 basis points to 8.65%. The bank has however not made any changes in its current benchmark - the marginal cost of lending rate (MCLR).
  • The reduction in the Base Rate will benefit those borrowers who had raised floating rate loans, including home loans, before April 2016.
  • While a large number of home loan borrowers had refinanced their mortgages to take advantage of the lower rates offered under the MCLR regime, there are still close to half the older borrowers whose loans are linked to the Base Rate.
  • With this reduction, SBI's base rate is lowest among lenders. The advantage for SBI is with this reduction its older borrowers now do not have the same incentive to get their loans refinanced from other borrowers.
  • For SBI it ranges from 7.70% for overnight borrowing to 8.10 for three years. The bank's cheapest home loans are currently available at 8.35% and are linked to one-year MCLR.
  • There is a likelihood that the MCLR will also be replaced by an external benchmark similar to Libor in global markets. In October 2017 an RBI panel had suggested that banks link lending rates to an external benchmark to hasten policy transmission.

  • In keeping with its decision to review utilisation of Indus waters as part of its signalling that Pakistan cannot expect past voluntary concessions to continue as long as it exports terror to India, the government has moved further on a project to store water in Jammu and Kashmir's Kathua district.
  • Looking to fast-track utilisation of India's rights under the Indus Waters Treaty (IWT), the Central Water Commission (CWC) has finalised a detailed report on Ujh multi-purpose project and the government made it clear the proposal aims to harness water that was flowing untapped across the border.
  • The project report has been submitted to the J&K government for evaluation so that construction may begin at an early date.
  • The project, which is to come up in Kathua district, will store around 0.65 million acre feet (MAF) of water from Ujh (a tributary of Ravi) to irrigate 30,000 hectares and produce over 200 MW of power.
  • The government decided to take a relook at the implementation of the Indus treaty after PM Narendra Modi decided to do so following the attack by Pakistan-backed terrorists on the Army camp at Uri in 2016 .
  • An inter-ministerial task force with Nripendra Mishra, principal secretary to the PM, and national security adviser Ajit Doval was formed to examine the IWT with Pakistan.

  • "President has appointed Sahasrabuddhe as the President of ICCR on 29 Dec (Friday)," a Bharatiya Janata Party leader said.
  • Sahasrabuddhe, the BJP's national Vice President, is also a Rajya Sabha member from Maharashtra.
  • ICCR, which was founded in 1950 by India's first Education Minister Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, who also served as its first President. Former Presidents Dr Shankar Dayal Sharma and K.R. Narayanan, former Prime Ministers P.V. Narasimha Rao and Atal Bihari Vajpayee have also held the post.
  • The ICCR's main objectives are to actively participate in the formulation and implementation of policies and programmes pertaining to India's external cultural relations and to foster and strengthen cultural relations and mutual understanding between India and other countries.

  • Dec 29 State-run gas utility GAIL India today said it has placed orders for another 400-km of pipeline of the ambitious Pradhan Mantri Urja Ganga natural gas pipeline project that will take the fuel to eastern India.
  • Line pipe orders for about 400-km for pipeline from Dobhi in Bihar to Durgapur in West Bengal has been placed, the company said in a statement.
  • With these awards, pipe supply orders for 2,100 km of the Jagdishpur-Haldia & Bokaro-Dhamra Natural Gas Pipeline (JHBDPL) project have been placed. Also, 1,700 km of line laying orders have been placed.
  • The prestigious 2,655 km long JHBDPL project, also known as the 'Pradhan Mantri Urja Ganga' project will originate at Jagdishpur in Uttar Pradesh, where main trunk pipeline from the west coast currently ends, to Haldia in West Bengal and Dhamra in Odisha.
  • It will pass through Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, West Bengal and Odisha."GAIL till date has committed over Rs 6,500 crore for the project," the statement said.
  • The project, it said, will usher Industrial development in East India by supplying environmentally clean natural gas to fertiliser and power plant, refineries, steel plants and other industries
  • The project will also provide clean energy to households and transportation in the cities en-route the pipeline.GAIL said city gas network, laying activity in Varanasi and Bhubaneswar, has already commenced and the same in other cities like Patna, Ranchi, Jamshedpur, Cuttack and Kolkata will start by next month.

  • The Lok Sabha has passed the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (Amendment) Bill -2017.
  • The bill prohibits certain persons from submitting a resolution plan in case of defaults.
  • These include wilful defaulters, promoters or management of the company if it has an outstanding non-performing debt for over a year.
  • The Bill also has provisions to bar the sale of property of a defaulter to such persons during liquidation. Earlier, Finance Minister Arun Jaitley moved the bill for the consideration and passing.

  • The bill was passed after the House rejected a string of amendments moved by various opposition members. MPs from the RJD, AIMIM, BJD, AIADMK and All India Muslim League opposed the bill, calling it arbitrary in nature and a faulty proposal.
  • The Muslim Women (Protection of Rights on Marriage) Bill would only be applicable on instant triple talaq or 'talaq-e- biddat'. It gives power to the victim to approach a magistrate seeking "subsistence allowance" for herself and minor children.
  • A victim can also seek the custody of her minor children from the magistrate. Under the law, instant triple talaq in any form spoken, in writing or by electronic means such as email, SMS and WhatsApp would be illegal and void.
  • The bill will now be sent to the Rajya Sabha for passage before it is forwarded to the President for signing it into law. The bill is likely to sail through the Rajya Sabha, where the government lacks majority, given the Congress's stated support to the legislation.
  • Earlier introducing the bill in Lok Sabha, Law Minister Ravi Shankar Prasad said that this law is for women's rights and justice and not regarding any prayer, ritual or religion.
  • Speaking in Lok Sabha, Meenakshi Lekhi asked for a law for Maulvis who oversee instant Triple Talaq. She further said women are the biggest minority in this country and this is why they have been oppressed in the way they have.

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